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Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science

Breeds of Livestock - Bazna Swine

Breeds of Livestock - Bazna Swine


bazna-2.jpgAlso Known As: Porcul de Banat, Basner

Found in the central Transylvania region of Romania, the Bazna are black with white belt. The breed originated since 1872 from crosses between Berkshire and Mangalitsa. The resulted offsprings inherited superior productive traits of Mangalitsa breed so that the hybrids might quickly spread around the towns of Mediash, Sigishoara, Sibiu and Fagarash due to their superior precocity and prolificacy as compared to their native maternal breed.

In 1885, and after 1900, Berk boars were imported from England and were used to improve and homogenize the Bazna breed during its formation and development. From time to time Yorkshire and Sattelschwein breeds were used for improvement. For 30 years the Bazna pigs have been improved by using the Wessex and Hampshire breeds.

Bazna was officially recognized as a breed (herdbook established) in 1958 and then several selection populations were established.


Shortly after their formation, the Bazna pigs were spread around the towns of Mediash, Sibiu and Fagarash and they prezented traits superior to Mangalitsa and Stocli breeds; after the Second World War, the Bazna breed also spread in other Transylvanian areas (Cluj, Alba, Hunedoara, Muresh, Hargita counties, especially in the hills and mountains areas) as well as in Banat during some population movements.

Morphological and productive traits:

The Bazna pigs present medium withers height and a body structure characteristc for fat meat production. The head is medium with slightly concave profile. The ears are also medium, forward and laterally or horizontally placed. The neck is short, wide and deep, strongly attached. The trunk is average wide, quite deep and almost round. The top line of the body is slightly convex. The withers is well built, the back and the loins are medium and so is the chest with barrel-attached ribs. The rump is quite long and wide, slightly oblique and muscular. The hams are well developed, but lacking depth. The limbs are medium, strong enough, the pigs have good mobility. The belly is large due to the feeding with rough fodders (beet-Beta vulgaris, potatoes, turnips) and the udder has 12 nipples symmetrically placed. bazna-1.jpg

Adult pigs present 74-78 cm withers hight, the body length is 140 cm and shinbone perimeter is 18-20 cm, and the body weight is 160-180 kg in sows and 180-220 kg in adults boars. The characteristic color of hair in Bazna breed is black with a white belt which surrounds the trunk at the shoulders, including the forelimbs. The width of the belt reaches 30-40 cm. As it is characteristic for all black and white breeds, between these two colors there is a grey zone because of the pigmented skin and unpigmented hair. In some individuals the hindlimbs, snout and tip of the tail are also white as in the Berk breed. The hair is quite dense, smooth, slightly curly, with average length of 4 cm. Genetically the white belt is dominant as compared with the black and red colors and recessive as compared with the white color. Few individuals are entirely black or white with black head; these are excluded from reproduction.

The prolificacy of the breed is good with the average of 9.5 piglets per farrowing, weaning approximately eight piglets. The three weeks litter weight is approximately 38-42 kg. The product longevity is 8-12 farrowings. At 2 months the piglets reach 14-15 kg and are weaned.

The precocity is not satisfying. The young pigs are used for reproduction at the age of 10-11 months becoming adults at the age of three years. The body weight is as follows: 1.2 kg at birth, 5.6 kg at one month, 14 kg at two months, 60-65 kg at six months, 125-135 kg at one year. The daily weight gain during the fattening period is 550-600 g with a food conversion of 5.5 kg. The young pigs are fit for early fattening, weighing 90-110 kg at slaughtering. The best results are obtained at 140-160 kg, when the lean/fat ratio is 1.3-1.4.

The Bazna breed is highly adapted for natural breeding conditions. It is not very demanding and varied food sources can be successfully used: roots, pasture, potatoes, corn, food wastes. The Bazna pigs are strong and can be raised both extensively and half-intensively.

Importance and development perspectives

The Bazna breed has limited perspectives as compared with lean breeds with high productive traits. These breed will be raised as before, in the same areas where it is very appreciated by the natives due to its lard and lean firmness.

It is also kept as a gene source.


Prof. Dr. Emil Sas & Asst. DMV Ioan Hutu. - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Timisoara - Romania Email: or

Mason, I.L. 1996. A World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds, Types and Varieties. Fourth Edition. C.A.B International. 273 pp.

Prof. Dr. Emil Sas and Asst.DVM Ioan Hutu, Romania

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Added Monday, March 4, 2002


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